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Female : 12,32,893
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Sodium Hypochlorite

Chemicals July 9, 2013

Strategies for Meeting Sodium Hypochlorite Specifications in the Drinking Water Industry.

Abstract

Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) manufacturers are now frequently required to provide high quality sodium hypochlorite with limits on chlorate ion and transition metal ions. Sodium hypochlorite “decomposes” by two mechanisms. The first is the 2nd order process that forms chlorate ion:

3OCl → ClO3 + 2Cl

In the presence of transition metal ions, decomposing bleach forms oxygen:

3OC + OCl → 02 + 2Cl

Large municipalities are requiring that delivered sodium hypochlorite (9 to 16 wt% NaOCl) have between 0.1 – 0.4 wt% excess caustic, <1,500 mg/L ClO3-, <0.5 mg/L iron and <0.05 mg/L nickel and copper. Important considerations for minimizing ClO3 formation include:

  • pH (i.e. excess caustic)
  • dilution (decomposition is 2nd order with respect to OCl)
  • and temperature control.

Sodium Hypochlorite filtering produces stable, high quality bleach by removing inert sediments which impart off-color and turbidity to the bleach. Filtration with the proper filter-aid materials can be used to precipitate soluble metal ion species of Fe, Ni, and Cu and helps to reduce the coating of pumps/piping and the accumulation of heavy metal sludge on tank bottoms. It also reduces the potential for the catalytic formation of oxygen and pressure build-up in bleach containers. The analysis of 15% bleach before and after filtration shows a reduction of iron from 2-3 ppm to <0.3 mg/L. The same kind of reduction was observed for nickel ion (0.5 to <0.01 ppm).

Introduction

Sodium Hypochlorite loses its strength by two decomposition pathways. The more dominant pathway leads to the formation of chlorate ion. A slower, second bleach decomposition pathway leads to oxygen formation.

Chlorate Ion (ClO3) Formation:

The rate of bleach decomposition between pH 11 and 13 is: rate = k2[OCl]2 with the following stoichiometry:

3OCl → ClO3 + 2Cl

The decomposition of OCl involves chlorite ion (ClO2) as an intermediate in the following generally accepted mechanism:

OCl + OCl → ClO2 + Cl OCl + ClO2 → ClO3 + Cl

More Information:

  • Delivery Locations
  • Sampling and Testing Prior to Unloading
  • Sampling and Test of Shipment after Unloading
  • Specifications of Material
  • Manufacturer’s Laboratory Reports
  • Approved Testing Agency
  • Specifying Personnel

For More details call  : 9444042000

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Ro Chemicals

Chemicals July 7, 2013

Ro Antiscalant chemicals, Ph booster sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate , Ro plant washing chemicals.

Antiscalant chemical

  1. For community Purpose In rural areas
  2. For residence, housing, office building Purpose
  3. For school, collage, educational institutes Purpose
  4. For hotels, restaurants, resorts Purpose
  5. For hospitals, nursing homes and others medical institutes Purpose.
  6. For Municipality water supply, Corporation Purpose
  7. For Industrial purpose like paper mills, cotton mills, Poultry Firms, Chemical plant, Pharmaceutical purpose etc.

We also provide customized solutions for any sort of water related problems

Ph booster sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate ,

Since RO membranes will reject dissolved ions but not dissolved gases, the RO permeate and RO feed will contain roughly the same amount of CO2. The HCO3 and CO3, however, are often reduced by 1-2 orders of magnitude. This upsets the CO2, HCO3, CO3 equilibrium that was established in the feed. In a series of equilibrium reactions, CO2 will combine with H2O driving reactions similar to that shown below, until a new equilibrium Is established.

CO2 + H2O –> HCO3 + H+

Ro plant washing chemicals.

Even with all the preventative care given to a reverse osmosis system, some fouling of the membranes will take place. Cleaning of the membranes can improve membrane performance.

All membranes lose their performance with time. One of the major causes for the loss of performance is due to substances that deposit on the membrane surface. Although the term fouling is used for deposit of any materials on the membrane, the coating of the membrane surface can be due to the following:

  • Fouling
  • Scaling
Fouling

Fouling of membranes is due to the suspended or emulsified materials that may be present in the feed water to the reverse osmosis system. Examples of such materials are: silica, oil, clay, iron, sulfur and humic acids. These substances can be present in a very fine or colloidal form. Even the typical 5 micron cartridge filters used upstream from a reverse osmosis system may not completely remove these foulants.

Membrane Fouling and Scaling

The concentration of all materials in the feed water – dissolved and suspended – is highest near the membrane surface. As permeate is removed through the membrane, all impurities are left behind near the membrane surface. The layer of water next to the membrane surface (boundary layer) gets more and more concentrated in the dissolved and suspended materials. These concentrations reach a certain steady level depending on feed velocity, element recovery and membrane permeate flux (gallons per square foot of permeate produced per day).

It is important to follow membrane manufacturers’ recommendations on minimum feed flow, maximum element recovery and maximum element flux. These recommendations are based on the element size and quality of feed water being treated. The concentrations of the dissolved and suspended solids in the boundary layer control the performance of the membrane. Higher concentrations mean higher osmotic pressure, higher tendency of suspended solids to coagulate and coat the membrane surface, and higher likelihood of scaling to take place. Maintaining proper operating conditions for the membrane is the key preventative step to minimize membrane fouling.

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